Samuel Hawley author









Samuel Hawley is a writer. His books are highly eclectic. He has written about 16th-century East Asian history, 19th-century Korean-American relations, Olympic sprinting and land speed racing and a circus elephant named Topsy who was electrocuted in 1903. He lives in Kingston, Ontario.

samuel hawley facebook

homeowner-with-a-gun, thriller
percy williams olympics 1928 gold medal art arfons craig breedlove land speed record imjin war japanese invasion korea george foulk korea hermit kingdom


March 14, 2015

Samuel Hawley Readers Choice Awards

Hurray! Homeowner With a Gun has been nominated by the Big Al's Books & Pals book review website for a Readers' Choice Award in the "Thriller" category. The site reviewed more than 3,000 books over the past year, so just to get nominated is an honor. Thanks, B & P!

Want to cast your ballot? Go to this link, Readers' Choice Awards, and scroll down to the contest entry box near the bottom of the page.

In the meantime I'm working away on my next book. It's a little early for me to want to talk much about it, other than to say it's set in Japan in the closing days of the Second World War. Stay tuned!


January 3, 2015

Boy, it doesn't get any better than this: A five-star review of Bad Elephant Far Stream from author K.J. Farnham:

"Samuel Hawley's Bad Elephant Far Stream is the best book I read in 2014....I read a lot of good books this year, even a few others that took me on an emotional roller coaster like this one. So what makes Bad Elephant Far Stream my favorite? First off, when I think about it, I still get teary eyed. Second, this book prompted me to find out more about Topsy and Samuel Hawley. Third, I want everyone to read this book. It doesn't matter what genre you normally read or if you're passionate about animals. This book will set your heart on fire." (highlighting in original review)

Thank you, K.J.! You really made my day!


November 1, 2014

bad elephant far stream

I'm holding a giveaway over at Librarything of 100 free ebook copies of my novel Bad Elephant Far Stream. Click on the image above or link below, scroll down to the listing and click on "Request It!"
LibraryThing Giveaway

UPDATE: This giveaway has ended.


September 5, 2014

My latest fiction effort the thriller Homeowner With a Gun is now available.

HOMEOWNER WITH A GUN print edition


August 13, 2014

It's here! The paperback edition of the THE IMJIN WAR!

UPDATE (Sept. 4, 2014)

The eBook edition of The Imjin War is now available too: IMJIN WAR eBook


July 23, 2014

Blog Talk Radio host Giovanni Gelati had me onto his book chat show "The G Zone" again today. We talked about my last book Bad Elephant Far Stream, my forthcoming thriller Homeowner With a Gun, land speed racing and a whole lot more. Click on the image to listen.

Samuel Hawley author radio interview


July 22, 2014

The paperback edition of my book The Imjin War is coming in September. (The hardcover edition was
originally co-published in 2005 by the Royal Asiatic Society, Seoul, and the Institute of East Asian Studies, UC Berkeley, and reprinted in 2008.) For anyone who has been unable to find a hardcover copy or been turned off by the price being asked for it in some quarters, this new edition will be easily available on and elsewhere, for a more modest list price of $24.95. I've just recieved the proofs  and they look okay, so it's time to reveal the cover. Behold!

The Imjin War


June 3, 2014

Here's a promo for my forthcoming book, the thriller "Homeowner With a Gun." Check out my Forthcoming page for more information.

Homeowner With a Gun thriller novel Hawley


May 8, 2014

Word is now out, in an article in Autoweek magazine, about Craig Breedlove's new land speed car, the latest incarnation of "Spirit of America." Below is an image by project engineer Neil Roberts of the two-engine beast. The article doesn't mention it, but the full name Craig is contemplating for the car is "Spirit of America-We Are One." The article does mentions, though, that there's a Craig Breedlove feature film project in the works. It's "Speed Duel," screenplay by yours truly. Check it out!
Craig Breedlove Spirit of America We Are One


April 11, 2014

Here's a guest post I wrote for on The Evolution of a Book Cover: Bad Elephant Far Stream, in which I describe and illustrate the creative process I went through to create the final cover for my latest book.

book cover design


March 27, 2014

Here's a shot of me with Craig Breedlove, taken a few days ago in LA. I was just out there to meet with Craig and some people about my Speed Duel screenplay, which I wrote based on my book of the same title. Craig is personally on board with this movie project, and Tim Arfons (Art's son) has given us his support as well. I've been told that getting a movie made is pretty tough these days, but hey, we're not talking about any movie here. This is the Craig Breedlove vs. Art Arfons story, one of the most exciting chapters in motorsport history. We talking Top Gun--six inches off the ground.

While I was out in LA, Craig, along with his long-time friend and associate Stan Goldstein and engineer Neil Roberts, gave me the inside scoop on Craig's new land speed car project, the fourth incarnation of Spirit of America. The car, designed to go 1,000 mph, looks fantastic, and incorporates some beautifully simple and
ingenious elements that Craig has designed--evidence that flashes of genius can come at any age. I have to tell you, folks: this project is starting to look like a "Go." Stay tuned!

Craig Breedlove and author Samuel Hawley


March 3, 2014

I had the pleasure this evening of being on the BlogTalkRadio show The Writers Lounge to talk about Bad Elephant Far Stream with hosts Tom Riddell and Lisa Lea. Thanks for having me on, guys!

samuel hawley interview


February 9, 2014

Here's a parody movie trailer I just made for the upcoming blockbuster "Generic Hollywood Movie 1019," from Assembly Line Films, Bean Counter Pictures and Toe the Line Entertainment.

generic hollywood movie parody trailer


January 21, 2014

Today, I was on the BlogTalkRadio show Back Porch Writer with host Kori Miller. Click on the image to listen. (Thanks for having me on, Kori!)

samuel hawley radio interview bad elephant


January 17, 2014

I was on the show Indie Books this morning with host Will Wilson to talk about Bad Elephant Far Stream. Click on the image to go to the BlogTalkRadio site and listen to the interview.

samuel hawley radio interview indie books


January 14, 2014

I just had the pleasure of being on the BlogTalkRadio show The G-Zone with Giovanni Gelati, to discuss Bad Elephant Far Stream.

Samuel Hawley BlogTalkRadio The G-Zone


December 8, 2013

I've just learned that my book The Imjin War: Japan's Sixteenth-Century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China is on display in a glass case at the National Palace Museum of Korea, at Gyeongbok Palace (Gyeongbokgung) in Seoul. I am definitely very honored. Here's a picture of the display:

imjin war national palace museum


November 20, 2013

I'm going to be appearing on the BlogTalkRadio show The G-Zone on Jan. 14th at 11:00 a.m. (EST). Here's a lead-up guest post I wrote for the show's accompanying Gelati's Scoop website on "Bad Elephant Far Stream--Where It Came From."

Bad Elephant Far Stream: Where It Came From

The idea for what ultimately became my novel Bad Elephant Far Stream sprang from some research I did on the early history of motion pictures, trolling for ideas for my next nonfiction book. I stumbled on a Kinetoscope film entitled “Electrocuting an Elephant,” made by the Edison Company more than a century ago. The film (which can be easily found on Youtube) shows the electrocution of a circus elephant named Topsy on Coney Island on January 4, 1903.

“Electrocuting an Elephant” led me to start researching circus elephants in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. I was amazed at the accounts I turned up of elephants being euthanized because they had killed somebody or gone on a rampage or otherwise done something that got them labeled “wicked” or “bad.” They were being poisoned and shot and hanged from steam winches—and in the unusual case of Topsy, electrocuted with lines running from the Edison Electrical Company’s Coney Island power station.

I thought that this would make an interesting book, the euthanizing of all these elephants back then. What was going on with these creatures? Why were they turning “bad”? What were their lives like? Why were they being killed? I soon realized, though, that in order to tell a compelling story, I needed to focus on just one elephant. So I decided to tell the story of Topsy.

After doing a good deal of research, I set out to write a nonfiction book with the title Bad Elephant: The Odyssey from Birth to Execution of a Circus Pachyderm. Nonfiction, after all, was all I’d written up to that point. I found, however, that in struggling to “get inside” Topsy, I was veering deep into fiction territory. I also wanted to give the story some hope and a happy ending. The result was the novel Bad Elephant Far Stream.

There was something else too that drove me to write Bad Elephant Far Stream as a novel in the way that I did. It was the realization that books about animals rarely are actually about the animal at all, but rather are about human main characters, with the animal serving as a prop. The animal is there for the human characters to fight about, to get emotional over, to learn about themselves from. I didn’t want to do that. I didn’t want to tell the story of the human who found redemption or true love or whatever through his relationship with big ol’ cuddly elephant Topsy. I wanted to make Topsy herself the main character. I wanted to make her life experience and her quest the focus of the story—to step outside my human viewpoint and try to image what life was like for her. The result of my struggle to do this was Bad Elephant Far Stream.


October 28, 2013

Bad Elephant Far Stream is now available for sale on Amazon in both print and eBook editions. Bookstore sales will follow shortly. Here are the publication details:

TITLE:  Bad Elephant Far Stream
GENRE:  historical fiction
AUTHOR:  Samuel Hawley
PUBLISHER:  Conquistador Press
PUBLICATION DATE:  November 2013
LIST PRICE:  $15.95 (paperback); $2.99 (eBook)
ISBN NUMBER:  978-0-9920786-0-7
CATALOGUING: PS8615.A8217B33 2013        C813'.6        C2013-905661-0


August 6, 2013

My latest book will be out this fall. It's a novel--my first fiction effort--entitled Bad Elephant Far Stream. Below is a draft of the cover (front, spine and back), ISBN number pending. It's being publishing by Conquistador Press and will be available on "and wherever fine books are sold." The back cover blurb is included below.

Update (August 9, 2013)

The cover for Bad Elephant Far Stream is now finalized, with the ISBN added. I've updated the image below:

bad elephant far stream

Here's the back cover blurb:

Bad Elephant Far Stream
is an elephant’s life story, told from her own perspective, through her own eyes. Inspired by the life of a real elephant known as Topsy, it follows Far Stream from her birth and her capture in the forests of Ceylon in the late 1860s through her transportation to America and thirty years of travel and adventure with the circus, which ultimately led to her being labeled as “bad.” It’s an unusual and uncompromising novel that explores the questions: What is it like to be an elephant trained for human amusement? What does such a creature think? What does it feel? What does it yearn for? Bad Elephant Far Stream takes the reader  on a voyage of discovery to find out.


 May 14, 2013

Here's my latest ant film, "The Great Debate." It's a debate between incumbent governor Wilmont Squander of the Kumbaya Party and challenger John Staunch of the Common-Sense Coalition. With this one, I've given the ants hair and use intro music and sound effects. It's 6 minutes, 25 seconds long--my first feature!

political debate conservatives liberals republicans democrats racism global warming


 March 27, 2013

My third "ant" film, "The Poop Head Foundation," taking a humorous look at the leftist crap that is being taught in our schools. I've gotten a bit more ambitious with the animation, adding a moving mouth and blinking eyes to Poop Head Foundation founder and CEO Sparky Zong.

poop head foundation


 March 8, 2013

Here's my second "ant" film. It takes a humorous look at the Human Rights Commission racket here in Canada, in particular Section 13 of the Human Rights Act, the so-called "Shut Your Mouth" clause. The beleagued Moon-TV show host Ezra Twitchy is based on...well, you can probably figure it out.

I'm getting a little better at making these little movies. Note, for example, that news anchor Ken Glossy is now wearing a bow tie and sitting behind a desk. I don't know, but he just might get a hairpiece next.

ant rights commission bans funny looks


 March 4, 2013

Here is a short animated film I've just made, "Ant-Caused Global Warming." I recorded and manipulated the audio (my own voice) using Audacity; I animated the ants using Pivot Animator; I made the backgrounds using Photoshop and FotoSketcher; I did the "outside shots" and end credits in Photo Story 3; and I edited the video together in Microsoft Movie Maker. It took about three days altogether, which included the time it took to figure out the Pivot Animator and Movie Maker software, which I hadn't used before.

global warming scam hoax hysteria caused by ants


February 27, 2013

I was forced to give up jogging about five years ago due to Achilles tendonitis. It got to the point where just a walk to the store got me limping and my tendons were visibly swollen all the time. The traditional remedies of rest and ice packs didn’t do any good at all. Neither did getting fitted for custom orthotics. The firm support of orthotics—which comes with a $500 price tag—felt promising at first, but after a couple of weeks it became clear that they were only making the problem worse. So I ditched them.

It was then that I stumbled on a totally different approach to dealing with Achilles tendon pain. It’s called “heavy load eccentric calf training,” aka doing negative one-legged calf raises. Here’s how. Stand on one leg on a stair, your heel projecting off the edge, and lower yourself down all the way (keeping your leg straight and using ankle movement only) so that your Achilles tendon is fully stretched. Use both feet to raise yourself up again on your toe, then go back on one leg and lower yourself again. Do this 15 times on your right leg, then 15 times on your left. That makes one set. Do three of these sets, twice a day, every day for 3 months. As your calves get stronger, start adding weight. You can do this by holding a dumbbell or putting weights in a knapsack. If you find it hurts, that okay. It’s supposed to hurt, within reason.

Well, I tried it. My calves were pretty sore at first, but I gradually worked my way up, adding 10 pounds in weight, then 20, then 30, then 50. And my tendons started getting better. It took a while (tendons heal very slowly), but after a couple months I was noticing a significant improvement.

It’s been five months now since I began doing these exercises and my Achilles tendons are in better shape than they’ve been in years. I’ve scaled back and do the exercises only 3 or so times a week now, incorporating them into my workout at the gym, using a hack machine. The result? I can walk without feeling any tendon discomfort. I can jog on the treadmill at the gym (and presumably outside once the weather warms up). I can even skip rope again, something I haven’t been able to do in ages.

If you want to find out more, here are a couple videos on Youtube demonstrating the exercises and giving additional tips:

Achilles tendonitis video 1

Achilles tendonitis video 2


February 24, 2013

Hey, land speed fans, here’s a poster you might like: Craig Breedlove with his “Spirit of America” jet car and Art Arfons with his “Green Monster” posing together on the Bonneville Salt Flats circa 1964:

craig breedlove spirit of america arfons green monster

No, Breedlove and Arfons never actually posed together on the salt like this with their land speed machines. This image is a composite I assembled from four different photos (Breedlove and car; Arfons and car; mountains in background; sky). The poster is available for purchase on Zazzle, here. You can also get it on a T-shirt, along with a Wingfoot Express Rocket Car T-shirt.


February 20, 2013

South Korean director Kim Ji-hoon’s latest film, released on December 25, 2012 to brisk ticket sales, is the disaster epic The Tower. Set in a 120-story luxury skyscraper in Seoul, it’s about the struggle of building manager Lee (Kim Sang-kyung) to save the people trapped inside, among them his love interest Ms. Seo (Son Ye-jin), while firefighter Kang (Sol Kyung-gu) battles the conflagration. If that sounds similar to the star-studded 1974 film The Towering Inferno (Paul Newman, Steve McQueen, Faye Dunaway, etc.)—well, that’s because it is. Director Kim, however, had another, more local, inspiration for the movie: the fire at the Daeyeongak Hotel in Seoul’s Chungmuro district on Christmas Day, 1971. It remains the deadliest hotel fire in history.

The 21-story Daeyeongak Hotel was built in 1970 to what were even at the time extremely poor standards. While the building shell was of inflammable reinforced concrete, the interior was a tinderbox: wood-partition walls covered with paper; ceilings of plywood sheets affixed to wood framing; no sprinkler system; inadequate firefighting equipment. Such slackness was not unusual in Korea at the time. In the country’s new-found rush to modernize, corners were cut.

The fire originated in the hotel coffee shop on December 25, 1971 at 10:00 in the morning, sparked by an exploding LP gas cylinder behind the counter. The fire instantly engulfed the coffee shop and quickly spread to the lobby, trapping the 296 hotel guests and workers inside. The smoke and flames then spread uncontained from floor to floor and room to room through the wide-open spaces above the drop ceilings.

Firefighters rushed to the scene but their ladders could only reach the seventh floor to get people out. More than 100 people were evacuated this way and by climbing down from on tied-together bed sheets. A handful of others were airlifted off the roof by a helicopter. For the rest, there was no escape. One of the most horrific photos from the fire shows a person leaping from an upper-floor window clinging to a mattress, a second person leaning out with another mattress, ready to follow.

The Daeyeongak Hotel fire burned until 5:30 that afternoon. The final death toll was 163 killed: 121 victims consumed by the fire and 38 others who jumped to their deaths.

daeyeongak hotel seoul deadliest fire


February 17, 2013

My childhood home in Yonhui-dong, Seoul, South Korea was at the base of a hill we called Saddleback Mountain. Its actual name is An-san but we didn’t call it that. To the foreigners living around Yonsei University back the 1960s and early ‘70s, it was Saddleback Mountain on account of the distinct saddle-shape of its summit ridge.

This summit ridge was clearly visible because Saddleback, like most mountains around Korean towns and cities back then, was almost completely denuded of trees. The country was desperately poor and people needed firewood. Also visible due to the barrenness of the hillside were little depressions here and there, about halfway up. These were the remains of Korean War foxholes.

I sometimes tagged along with my older brother Jim and his friends to poke around in those foxholes. We found all sorts of things in them: cartridges, the rusted base of a mortar, a belt buckle, buttons, and bones (which I recall carting home to the displeasure of my mother). It was only decades later, when I returned to Korea to work as an instructor at Yonsei, that I learned that this area around Saddleback and descending into Yonhui-dong had been the main line of North Korean defense against US and South Korean forces as they pushed inland to recapture Seoul following MacArthur’s Incheon landing. The remains in those foxholes therefore had likely been North Korean.

Saddleback was once again the scene of military action—Cold War action this time, briefly turned hot—in January 1968. In that month North Korean leader Kim Il-sung dispatched a 31-man commando squad across the DMZ with orders to “cut off the head of [South Korean President] Park Chung-hee.” The commandos, sticking mainly to the mountains as they worked their way south, made it to within 800 meters of Park’s presidential palace, Chongwadae (the Blue House), before being discovered. In the days that followed, the mountains north of Chongwadae, particularly Inwang-san immediately behind, An-san (Saddleback) to the west and Pukan-san further north, were alive with South Korea troops and police searching for the infiltrators. They hunted down and killed 29 of them and captured one. Only one remained unaccounted for. He may have gotten away.

Evidence of Korea’s violent past in the area around Saddleback is entirely gone now. The hillside, churned up by cannon and mortar fire in the early 1950s and still pockmarked with foxholes in the late ‘60s, is now covered with trees, the saddle-shape of the summit ridge entirely hidden. The depressions of foxholes have completely eroded away, the war remnants they contained long ago scavenged. On Yonsei University campus, a smouldering ruin in 1950 littered with the bodies of 150 dead North Koreans, everything looks new now, prosperous and well-tended. If you look closely, however, at the Horace Underwood statue in front of Underwood Hall, you can still see the marks of machine gun fire on the base. Sixty years after earth-shattering events—less than one lifetime—and this is all that remains.


February 15, 2013

I've been playing around with Photoshop again. Here's an original B & W photo of the stunningly beautiful Elizabeth Taylor:

liz taylor beautiful

And here it is colorized:

Elizabeth Taylor

So, I'm thinking about Liz Taylor, and that of course gets me thinking about the Montreal Canadiens hockey team. Here's an original B & W photo of Bernie "Boom Boom" Geffrion:

boom boom geoffion

And here it is after I resized it, touched it up and colorized it in Photoshop CS:

boom boom geoffrion montreal
A technique I stumbled on lately is to use two layers of color to give the finished photo a richer look. I did this with Liz Taylor's skin and lips (for the lips it was one layer of red and then a second layer of deeper red over top) and with Boom Boom's gloves (a tan layer, then a more orangey layer over top to give them a nice rich leather look).


February 3, 2013

Well, I finally took the plunge and bought a new desktop computer to replace my old Dell Dimension, purchased in Seoul, Korea in early 2007. I wrote all the books to my name on that old machine, from The Imjin War to Speed Duel and I Just Ran. So I was sorry to relegate it to the spare room downstairs. Unfortunately, the old girl had gotten fractious in the past few years, in particular the power  unit at the back, which would periodically start making a loud buzzing/whining noise. When it did that I'd have to turn the computer off and take the vacuum cleaner to it, holding the vacuum nozzle to the fan at the rear of the tower and getting that sucker spinning real fast. I got so I could tell that the problem was fixed by the pitch of the whine from the fan (it needed to be nice and high, not a low drone) and the length of time it took the fan to stop spinning after the vacuum was withdrawn (it needed to keep spinning for a few seconds on it own). If I pulled the noozle away and the fan ground to a halt right away, then another treatment was needed. Not a very high-tech solution, but doggone, it worked. It gave me at last three additonal years of service--kind of like beating an old horse back its feet after it has collapsed with exhaustion.

So why did I get a new computer? Well, it was all the negative reviews of Windows 8 that spurred me to action. Windows 8 sounds so user unfriendly (it doesn't even have the "Start" icon, for pete's sake!) that I decided I'd better get a new machine with Windows 7 on it while they were still to be had. Luckily, I was able to get one from Dell. It cost a bit more, but it was worth it. So now I'm fixed up with a Dell Inspiron 660 with 6GB of RAM and a 1TB hard drive. Hopefully it'ill give me years of trouble-free service. But if it doesn't, there's always the vacuum cleaner...


February 1, 2013

Prime skating conditions on the Litte Cataraqui Creek in Kingston, Ontario, nice smooth ice covered with only a skiver of snow. My wife and I were able to skate from the Ambassador Hotel on Princess Street all the way down to Front Street and back--a total of eight kilometers easy. Not the Rideau Canal in Ottawa, but pretty sweet just the same!

kingston cataraqui creek skating


December 26, 2012

arfons green monster land speed

I've been playing around making videos lately. My most recent effort is a tribute to three-time land speed recond holder Art Arfons, posted on YouTube, here. For those of you interested in the technical stuff, I used the free Windows software PhotoStory 3 to put together the images and achieve a sense of motion. This video is about as far as you can push this software, so I guess I'm going to have to get some real video editing software next. The music, by the way, is a version of John Lee Hooker's "Boom Boom," performed by John A. Langford. Here is Langford's original Youtube posting. Note: It takes him a minute of so to sip his drink and loosen up and get ready, but then--BOOM--he starts rockin'. Check him out. He is really something. His version of "Knockin' on Heaven's Door" will knock your socks off too. And check out his original composition "Without a Sound".


November 10, 2012

I went down to Columbus, Ohio in September to attend Frank Rolfe's 3-day Mobile Home Park Investing Boot Camp. Below is a group photo of the attendees. Frank's the one at center in the blue dress shirt. The MHP market is not too attractive here in Ontario (there are few parks overall; the ones that come on the market are overpriced; the vast majority are not on city water and sewer and so you have well and septic headaches; rent control makes it hard to raise rents; and onerous water testing regulations add thousands of dollars to a park's expensives) but it's a different story south of the border. There are lots of park-investing opportunities in the States. I think there are something like 40,000 MHPs there in total. As the US--sadly--embraces socialism and Big Statism, there is only going to be a growing need for the affordable housing that mobile home parks provide. Couple that with the fact that new parks are not being built (it's just too expensive now to start one from scratch) and you have a pretty good investing opportunity.

frank rolfe mobile home park investing


June 4, 2012

hawley i just ran independent publisher award

I Just Ran: Percy Williams, World's Fastest Human has won the silver medal in the 2012 Independent Publisher Awards.


January 6, 2012

I've been reading up on Thomas Edison as part of some research for a book proposal. Here are a few interesting things that he said:

When asked if he believed in God:
"Oh yes. I think all scientific men do that. Or, rather, they don't believe it, they know it. It is for the masses to believe. The  scientist knows." ("Wizard Edison at Home," New York World, Nov. 17, 1889)

On our place in the cosmos:
"What a wonderfully small idea mankind has of the Almighty. My impression is that he has made unchangeable laws to govern this and billions of other worlds and that he has forgotten even the existence of this little mote of ours ages ago. Why can’t man follow up and practice the teachings of his own conscience, mind his business, and not obtrude his purposely created finite mind in affairs that will be attended to without any volunteered advice." (Thomas Edison diary, July 21, 1885, Thomas A. Edison Papers, Special Collections Series, doc. number TAEM 90:3)

On the vilification of capitalists:
"Read Sunday Herald, learned of John Roach’s failure. Am sorry. He has been pursued with great malignity by newspapers and others, from ignorance I think. Americans ought to be proud of Roach who started in life as a day laborer and became a giant of industry and the greatest shipbuilder in the United States, employing thousands of men and feeding innumerable families. What has he now for this 40 years of incessant work and worry. People who hound such men as these I would invent a special Hades. I would stricken them with the chronic sciatic neuralgia and cause them to wander forever stark naked within the artic circle." (Thomas Edison diary, July 19, 1885, Thomas A. Edison Papers, Special Collections Series, doc. number TAEM 90:3)

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copyright Samuel Hawley 2013